The meaning of management has been different for different people. Some consider it as a SCIENCE because of its proven and experimented principles, for some it is an ART because of the practice it requires in accomplishing it while others consider it to be just a PROFESSION and a source of income.
Well, in reality, Management is a combination of this Trivia. Management is an ART, a Science and a PROFESSION, too.
Management as an ART
Ability to apply knowledge & skill in order to attain the desired results is defined as ART. It is a personalized application of basic theoretical principles for achieving best possible results. For example, an ability of a tailor to shape a piece of cloth into a well-stitched dress is an art. Similarly, a sculpturist with his/her art can transform a rock piece into a beautiful idol.
The essential features of art include:
- Practical/Industry Knowledge
- Personal skills
- Ability to improve through constant practice
- Result oriented approach
Since management is concerned with implementing the knowledge, skills, principles, and theories of management to attaining the desired goals and to solve certain management problem in an organization, management is considered as an art.
Management as a SCIENCE
“Science is a systematic body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study that contains general facts which explains a phenomenon.” It ascertains relationship between the cause and effect between two or more variables and emphasizes the principles which govern their relationship. Scientific methods of observation and verification through testing lead to the development of these principles.
The essential features of Science are:
- Universally Acceptable Principles.
- Observation and Experimentation.
- Established Cause and Effect Relationship.
- Verified and Predictable validity.
Management is a social and behavioral science because it deals with the behaviors of human beings that is ever changing and cannot be predicted precisely.
For example, while a tailor can shape a piece of cloth into a dress, he/she has to follow some predefined principles. Thinking of the design is the art of the tailor however, to use that art is science based on various principles. And these principles are accepted and applied universally. So, management is a Science.
The ancient saying, “Manager are Born” has been discarded in favor of “Managers are Made”. It has been remarked aptly that management is the oldest of art and youngest of science, which is perfectly true.
Management as a PROFESSION
Profession is an occupation or a job done by any individual, who is well aware of delivering personal services to the people with expertise. To practice a profession, an individual must have acquired certain academic qualifications and training in the related field. In addition, a professional is required to follow the ethical code of conduct of an organization.
The essential features of profession are:
- Ability to render personal service with expertise and specialization.
- Formal education and training from a recognized institution.
- Code of conduct
- Representative Association.
For instance, to become a financial manager, an individual should be a Graduate in financial management as his/her major field of study from a recognized university. Similarly, in order to become a HR manager, one must have a Diploma with Human Resource Management.
So, Management is an Art, Science and Profession.