Scientific management is an essential theoretical concept in management, which helps large corporations achieve complicated tasks. When executed effectively, these techniques have the possibility of bringing humongous changes in terms of growth.
In this page, we will be discussing the techniques used for effective implementation of scientific management as proposed in various studies and researches
Work-study is the systematic management system categorically used to increase the efficiency of all operations within an organization. Some various factors and methods can be used to prepare a blueprint for efficient workflow in a business.
Using all the methods in the work-study system, management can carefully analyze and investigate all factors to improve efficiencies and operations. Work-Study consists of the following sub-categories –
- Method Study
- Motion Study
- Time Study
- Fatigue Study
2. Settings of scientific tasks
The setting of scientific tasks is one of the most effective ways to define worker efficiencies. The concept explains representing a precise set average work done by an employee in a day. The number of tasks and the amount of work done per day will vary every day, and employees will perform at higher efficiencies on some days and lower efficiencies on others.
Defining the average work helps workers maintain a standard amount of work. Workers can easily compare the progress to the average and keep a specific limit so that the weighted average does not fall below the norm set by the management of the company.
3. The scientific setting of wage rates
The wage rate is one of the most significant motivating factors for all employees. Because of the motivating ability, wage rates are also directly proportional to the output of efficiencies. Taylor proposed a system of wages in which the workers who are working more than the average worker should be paid more.
More pay will act as a motivating factor for all the employees and result in increased efficiency overall. Every worker should be paid in proportion to the amount of work done, and according to a proposed structure, it is advised that efficient workers should be paid 30% to 100% more than the worker who has contributed the average amount of work.
4. Standardizing the systems and resources
The systems and resources in a company, including the tools, cost systems, raw materials, etc. should be standardized. Giving equal quality and quantity of resources to every worker will result in a reduction in wastage of material, cost of production, and fatigue. It will also directly result in improving the quality and efficiency of systems within the organization.
5. Scientific procedures in selection and training
Selecting the right employees for specific tasks is one of the most crucial steps in improving processes and increasing efficiencies. According to this theory, scientific procedures should first be designed to define the jobs for which workers are required.
After defining the jobs, minimum requirement criteria in all the categories, including Qualification, work experience, level of efficiency, and training, should be established to filter the best candidates. Using these pre-requisite conditions, hiring is efficient, and workers can perform better at their jobs.
6. Functional Foremanship
In this theory, Taylor has proposed that one foreman is not equipped with the knowledge to advise on all factors. Different factors of operations in a company like the speed of work, repair of machinery, etc. require separate expert foremen.
The concept is called functional foremanship, and it involves dividing specific divisions to a foreman who is an expert and will be responsible for that particular domain. The theory also includes defining two divisions of operations with four foremen each. These are –
Planning department –
- Route clerk
- Instruction card clerk
- Time and cost dark disciplinarian
- Shop disciplinarian
Execution department –
- Gang boss
- Speed boss
- Repair boss
7. Differential rate plan
This specific plan within the system proposes to introduce two sets of payment structures, one being higher and the other lower. It offers a pretty straightforward structure in which the wage rate that a worker gets depends on the number of units that he/she produces in the factory.
It is easier to understand using an example; the worker producing more than ten units in a factor will be paid Rs. 100 per unit and the worker producing less than ten units will be paid Rs. 70 per unit. This system automatically motivates the worker to work more efficiently and produce more units.