While the principles of scientific management unfold its basic philosophy, the important question is how to implement these principles in practicality. Below are discussed the techniques as proposed by Taylor for implementing the principles of scientific management.
A) Time Study is a technique enabling the managers to determine average time taken by an employee to perform a specific task.
- Each and every part of the job is studied in-depth.
- An average employee with reasonable skill and ability is selected and studied in this technique.
- A task is assigned to an average worker and time is ascertained using a stop watch for performing that particular job.
- Taylor proposed that Fair day’s work should be concluded through experiments, observations, and analysis by keeping in view an average worker.
Standard Time × Working Hours = Fair Day’s Work
B) Motion Study is the study of the movements of body and limbs on machine involved in performing a job.
- The purpose of this study is to get rid of useless motions and ascertain the best way of performing the job.
- A motion study is an attempt made to know whether some elements of a task can be eliminating, combining or changing their sequence to achieve necessary rhythm.
- This study boosts the productivity and efficiency of employees by eliminating all unnecessary body motions.
C) Functional Foremanship was proposed to improve the work quality since a single manager might not be an expert in all the aspects of work.
- Taylor advocated functional foremanship for achieving ultimate specification.
- Employees are to be managed by specialist foreman.
- This technique is an extension of the principle of specialization at the managerial level.
- Taylor promoted appointing 8 foramen – 4 at the planning level & 4 at implementation level.
- The categorization of these specialist foremen are: –
- Instruction card clerk responsible for labeling the instructions according to which employees are required to perform their job.
- Time & cost clerk concerned with following a time table for doing a task & specifying the material and cost of labor involved in it.
- Route clerk ascertains the route through which raw materials has to be transported.
- Shop Disciplinarians are responsible for making rules and regulations to guarantee discipline at the workplace.
- Gang boss is concerned with making arrangement of employees, machines, tools, etc.
- Speed boss has to maintain the speed and remove interruptions in the production process.
- Repair boss is responsible for the maintenance of machine, tools and equipments.
- Inspector has to maintain the quality of product.
D) Differential Piece Wage Plan is based on the study of wage payment and its relation with efficiency of a worker.
- Simply, a worker who is more efficient is paid more wage than others.
- On the contrary, workers who are inefficient in their work and produce less output are paid less than the current rate i.e. worker is penalized for his inefficiency.
- In addition, workers who make efforts to improve their efficiency are offered incentives.
- This scheme also encourages inefficient employees to get better in their work and improve their standards.
- This technique leads to mass production minimizing the cost and maximizes profits.
- In order to create ordeal relationships between the managers and employees, various other techniques have been developed.
- These techniques also helps in creating better understanding on part of works including the use of instruction cards, graphs, slides, charts, strict rules & regulations, etc, to increase efficiency of employees.